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The 2017 Seventeenth Annual UMM Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS) celebrates student scholarly achievement and creative activities. Students from all disciplines participate in the URS. Types of presentations include posters, oral presentations, and short or abbreviated theatrical, dance, or musical performances. 

Presentations are accompanied by discussions and multimedia.

 


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Saturday, April 22
 

10:00am

Characterizing Metal Organic Frameworks through UV-Vis and Gel Electrophoresis

Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disease that causes problems with thinking, memory, and behavior and accounts for 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases. The presence of amyloid plaques in the brain, formed by the aggregation of a small, misfolded peptide called amyloid beta (Aβ), has been linked with the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are compounds made of metal ions coordinated to organic ligands to form pores that can trap different sized proteins and peptides. The use of a pre-stained protein ladder allows efficient testing of the protein absorption by multiple MOFs in hopes of characterizing one that will absorb small proteins similar in size to the aggregates of Aβ. UV-vis spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis where then used to track protein absorption. Previous research has identified HKUST-1 and Co(11)MOF-5 as MOFs of interest to continue studying. This research continued to characterize properties of those MOFs and investigated other MOFs such as ZIF-9 and ZIF-12 Characterizing these MOFs may lead to a better understanding of physical and chemical traits of MOFS and the involvement of MOFs in Alzheimer’s treatment as MOFs have the potential to help us understand vital information about the peptide that aggregates to form amyloid plaques.

 


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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Investigation of HKUST-1 and Related Composites with Protein Adsorption
Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) possess well-ordered porous structures that have been shown to adsorb proteins. MOFs can be enhanced by combining them with suitable materials to make composites. Enhancements include, but are not limited to, changing pore sizes, adding functional groups, improving selectivity of adsorption, and increasing stability. Previous research has shown high adsorption of proteins by the MOF, HKUST-1 but no research has been done to investigate the adsorption by its related composites, such as HKUST-1/GO, HKUST-1/ magnetite and HKUST-1/magnetite/GO. In this research, HKUST-1 and composites based on graphene oxide (GO) and magnetite were synthesized, characterized by FTIR, XRD and TGA, and investigated with the adsorption of insulin and bovine serum albumin (BSA). HKUST-1 and the composites adsorbed insulin rapidly within 20 minutes of incubation but with BSA, HKUST-1/GO (wt% = 18) showed the best adsorption of proteins within a 30-minute incubation period as indicated by the results of gel electrophoresis. Hydrolysis of the HKUST-1/GO (18%) with 0.02M sodium hydroxide solution improved the adsorption by varying the pore size but selectivity decreased. Magnetite and GO (18%) were compared and different levels of adsorption were observed; the GO composites indicated better adsorption. These results confirm the possibility of using HKUST-1 and related composites for adsorbing proteins at different amounts and with possible selectivity by varying the percent composition of magnetite and GO in the composites.


Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Seeing the Unseen: Two Methods + Rhetorical Situation of A War of Unknown Warriors by Winston Churchill
The speech examined was a War of Unknown Warriors by Winston Churchill. Two rhetorical methods (Toulmin and Style), as well as the Rhetorical Situation of the speech, were used for analysis of the speech. The area of speech analysis is vast, and the speeches given by Churchill have proved to be a rather popular topic of study. That said, while this is a historically important speech given the historical context of the beginning of the air raids on the country of Great Britain, the fact that this speech is not counted among the greatest of the Churchill speeches is astounding. Given the persuasive nature, the ability to unite a nation, and the ability to encourage the world, it was by all means Rhetorical literature that must be remembered. Whether it was describing the way to withstand Hitler or how the British people should unite, or even helping a fallen ally, unity is fundamental factor that permeates the essence of the speech. For this reason, A War of Unknown Warriors is a speech with a persisting exigence of unity. Thus, this speech exemplifies rhetorical characteristics which can serve as a basis for emulation in future speech writing. By examining a few of key characteristics of the speech, such as word choice and historical context, light is shed on the speaking style of one of the greatest orators of the 20th century.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

An Investigation of Modern Computer Global Illumination
As interactive computer graphics applications have become increasingly more computationally intensive, a demand for highly efficient real-time global illumination methods has increased. Methods of global illumination provide realistic lighting within computer simulated scenes and, more specifically, scenes in three dimensions. Historically, previous methods of global illumination have held up well, but with a higher demand in realistic interactive environments there exists a need for improved rendering technologies. Recently, efficient global illumination methods have been developed at NVIDIA Research which employ two new graphics processing algorithms and an efficient data structure to provide real-time global illumination. In practice, these methods would allow efficient gathering of real-time, viewer-dependent global illumination onto both static and dynamic objects within a scene. My research investigates implementations of these algorithms and single data structure, which have been created by NVIDIA Research, by executing these software implementations on a local machine in order to understand the comparison of tradeoffs between performance and accuracy for the two algorithms and single data structure. My research will provide recommendations for when and how these technologies should be used.




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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Direct Heteroarylation Synthesis of a Novel Benzodithiophene Organic Polymer
Organic homopolymers are large carbon based compounds composed of repeating units called monomers. A common monomeric unit is benzodithiophene (BDT). BDT homopolymers have shown great potential as semiconductor materials for organic photovoltaic solar cells and other organic electronics. Unfortunately, conventional polymer synthesis produces toxic by-products. Direct heteroarylation polymerization is far more environmentally friendly as it requires reduced monomer preparation and produces no toxic by-products; however, direct heteroarylation of benzodithiophene polymers has not yet been reported. Herein, we report the successful synthesis of high molecular weight, defect free polymers via direct heteroarylation polymerization. Synthesis was performed on a benzodithiophene monomer using a palladium catalyst with two different chemical additives, and an inorganic base in an organic solvent. Polymer weight, light absorption, and chemical structure were analyzed using gel-permeation chromatography, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and 1H NMR spectroscopy respectively. Direct heteroarylation produced significantly higher molecular weight polymers in a comparable yield to conventional synthetic methods. These results show that direct arylation synthesis is an effective green alternative for conventional polymerization of BDT organic polymers.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

The Assessment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Commercial Driver Medical Exam
Operators of commercial motor vehicles are required to undergo a biennial medical examination (CDME) to determine the driver’s medical fitness to safely operate such a vehicle. Examined drivers may be medically certified for 2 years, 1 year, 6 months, 3 months, or receive no certification. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a disorder that reduces airflow to the lungs during sleep and leads to poor quality sleep. OSA is one of the leading causes of excessive daytime sleepiness and is of special concern among commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. The present study uses OSA diagnosis data, as determined by a “gold standard” overnight polysomnogram (PSG), for 1,767 drivers. Diagnostic results for each driver were matched to a the driver’s CDME form; the resulting data was used to analyze the ability of the CDME medical examination to screen for undiagnosed OSA in CMV drivers and/or limit the certification times correspondingly. Of the 1,620 drivers who had a CDME form prior to their OSA diagnosis, medical examiners were able to identify 10% of the OSA positive cases. Of those drivers identified as positive by the medical examiner, 83% were diagnosed as positive by their PSG. Currently, the US DOT is carrying out a preliminary rulemaking process to decide whether specific standards for OSA screening in the CDME should be established. Our results suggest such standards should be considered.


Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Impact of Fertilizer, Corn Residue, and Cover Crops on Mycorrhizal Inoculum Potential and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Associations
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) can associate with roots of most land plants, helping to take up water and nutrients. Intensive agricultural practices like fallow treatments and adding inorganic nutrients reduce soil AMF. The purpose of my research was to examine whether three factors influenced AMF-crop associations: 1) fertilizer type and application rate 2) inclusion of cover crops that do or do not associate with AMF, and 3) impacts of corn residue. Soil Mycorrhizal Inoculum Potential (MIP) was measured to test treatment differences. MIP is the ability for soil AMF to infect roots. Roots grown in soil from the different treatments were evaluated in a MIP bioassay. In situ AMF colonization data for roots of field-grown plants was assessed. In the fertilizer experiment, MIP was significantly greater in the no-fertilizer and manure fertilizer treatments, indicating more AMF associations. Adding full, or half the amount of fertilizer had lower MIP, showing that increased nutrients reduced plant-AMF associations. Forage radish does not form AMF associations while annual ryegrass does, but in the cover crop experiment, no significant differences between these cover crops and fallow treatments occurred. Corn residue removal was expected to reduce soil health and reduce AMF associations; however, there were no significant differences compared to the residue retention treatment. Overall, fertilizer type and amount influenced AMF, but certain cover crops and residue did not.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Which Contains More Water? A Cup of Coffee or a Cup of Tea?
Americans are consuming more and more coffee (1.6 million tons imported in 2015) and tea (131,000 tons imported in 2015). What environmental impacts are these imports causing, and which product has a greater impact? This study examined the water footprint of both products using life cycle assessment, which is a technique for assessing environmental impact in different life stages of a product. The concept of water footprint was introduced at a meeting on virtual water trade 2002 in the Netherlands by Arjen Y. Hoekstra from UNESCO-IHE as a way of showing both the visible (e.g. water used to steep tea or brew coffee) and invisible (e.g. irrigation) water contained in a product. This study uses life cycle assessment data published in the peer-reviewed literature from 2003 to 2016, and includes the cultivation, processing, packaging, transport, and consumption stages. The end of life (or disposal) stage was excluded as it contributes very little to the overall water footprint of the products. The results indicate there is far more water required for one serving of coffee (191 L) compared to one serving of tea (23 L). Most coffee imported to U.S. is from Brazil, Colombia and Vietnam, while most of the tea is from Argentina, China and India. Many of these countries (especially Brazil, China and India) also suffer from water shortage, which consumers should consider when deciding whether to purchase tea or coffee.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Petrology and Geochemistry of the Taupo Volcanic Zone
New Zealand is a relatively young, geologically active area of the world. Volcanic activity is particularly focused on the North Island within an area called the Taupo Volcanic Zone. This zone is comprised of several active volcanoes with a variety of compositions from rhyolitic to andesitic. This study is focused around Mt. Ruapehu, an active volcano marking the southern terminus of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. A new vent was discovered in 2016 in the ring plain zone on the eastern side of Mt. Ruapehu. The vent is composed of two types of volcanic material: lithics and spatter. The study has two primary goals: 1) to demonstrate the vent is in-situ and not material eroded from the Ruapehu cone, and 2) to attempt to better-understand the vent, its origins, and the potential to place it within the context of the regional volcanic activity. In an addition to field observations, multiple laboratory-based methods were employed towards these goals, including petrographic, geochemical, geomorphological, and hand sample and mineral analyses. The geochemistry of the lithic sample plots within published data from Mt. Ruapehu, while the geochemistry of the spatter forms a cluster consistent with published compositional data from the western margin. Lithic and spatter compositions indicate that the two types of vent outcrop samples came from separate magma sources. Further work on the eastern side of Ruapehu is required to better understand the vent’s origins.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Toward the Development of a 10Be Chronology of Glaciation in the Mosquito Range, Colorado: a Progress Report
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Rocky Mountain region occurred about 21 ka (20,000 years before present). However, dated glacial chronologies suggest that while LGM glacier advances in individual ranges in Colorado were somewhat synchronous, retreat from their maximum extents was asynchronous, varying between ~20 and 15 ka or later. The precise timing and spatial variation of glacier advance and retreat provides insights into LGM climate change and is necessary to calibrate climate models.
To better understand the timing of the LGM in the Mosquito Range in Colorado, we collected 12 samples from granitic boulders on moraine crests in the summer of 2016. Sample processing began in Fall 2016. Samples were crushed, sieved and subject to magnetic separation. Chemical processing is underway to further separate quartz grains, and ultimately to extract beryllium oxide (BeO) “targets.” Target will be analyzed for the concentration of 10Be, a cosmogenically-produced isotope, using accelerator mass spectrometry at PRIME Lab (Purdue University). 10Be concentrations will then be used to determine the age of the moraines and thus reveal the timing of the local LGM.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Best Practices for Tutorials in Academic Libraries
In a world that is increasingly dependent on technology, libraries must find ways to harness these tools to stay relevant to the communities they serve. For example, Briggs Library offers onsite training as well as online tutorials to reach all types of users. However, these online tutorials, for various library tasks from how to find a book to advanced research techniques, tended to be static and passive in nature. Therefore the purpose of my literature review and research was to identify the best practices for online tutorials. This was achieved by locating academic sources that described how other university libraries created effective online tutorials. By using these institutions as a guide, I identified the learning strategies, audio, visual, and kinesthetic, present in online tutorials. After synthesizing my research, I realized that universities employed similar teaching strategies when creating their online tutorials including Universal Design for Learning (accommodates for multiple learning styles) and multimedia learning (tutorial includes audio, visual, and text). I came to the conclusion that effective online tutorials meet diverse student learning needs by using similar teaching strategies. Furthermore, the various universities made successful tutorials by catering to different learning styles present in their communities. They often evaluated tutorials by seeking direct feedback from users, for instance the preference of visual tutorials was found in certain communities. My recommendation to Briggs Library for creating effective and relevant tutorials was to survey the students’ learning preferences and consider applying multimedia teaching strategies.


Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Investigating the Influence of CD80/B7-H1 Signaling on Anti-tumor Immune Responses Mediated by CD8+ T cells
CD8+ T cells are capable of killing tumor cells, but tumor cells have many ways to evade CD8+ T cells. One mechanism is the expression of B7-H1 (PD-L1) on the surface of tumor cells. Signaling events downstream of B7-H1 interacting with PD-1 on CD8+ T cells result in inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. B7-H1 also interacts with CD80, which is expressed on the surface of CD8+ T cells. The impact of B7-H1 interacting with CD80 is the focus of our studies. In order to study this we use two mouse lines, one wild type line that expressed CD80 and one knockout line that does not express CD80 Utilizing CD8+ T cells harvested from these mice, we have found that activated CD80 knock-out CD8+ T cells survive better than activated wild-type CD8+ T cells when cultured with plate-bound B7-H1 protein and anti-CD3. We are currently investigating the signaling events that occur downstream of B7-H1 interacting with CD80 on effector CD8+ T cells that could contribute to the induction of apoptosis of CD8+ T cells.


Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Vertex Coloring and Applications

Consider the map of the 48 contiguous states in the USA, and suppose we want to color each state so that no two states that share a boundary have the same color. In general, we could represent every state with a vertex and draw an edge between two states that share a border. This problem can be modeled by a mathematical structure called a graph. A graph, denoted G = (V, E), is a set of vertices V and a set of edges E. The Vertex Coloring problem on G aims to find the minimum number of colors (the chromatic number) needed to color the vertices such that no two adjacent nodes have the same color. Vertex coloring can solve real-world problems such as finding the minimum number of time slots to schedule a final exam period so that no two courses (taken by the same student) are scheduled at the same time slot.  In general, finding the chromatic number of a graph is an NP-hard problem, meaning there is no known efficient time algorithm to solve it and there will likely not be one. Hence, there is interest in finding approximation algorithms (heuristics) to find the chromatic number. In this research, we present three heuristics used to find good approximate vertex colorings in an efficient time period even though they may not give us the optimal minimum coloring of the graph. This is important as it allows us to approximately solve complex problems in a reasonable amount of time. We will present computational results comparing the efficiency (time and quality) of these heuristics.

 


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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Development of a Three-Dimensional Image of a Colloidal Fluid
Colloidal fluids—fluids that are a mixture of particles whose sizes and densities differ and remain mixed for a long period of time—are a fundamental part of our day to day lives, such as, lotions, toothpaste, and paints. Our previous research modeled a colloidal fluid with mixtures of two sizes of hard spheres. This research resulted in radial distribution functions that revealed the existence of two phases, one with only short-range structure and one with long-range structure. The objective of our current research is to construct a three-dimensional image showing what the fluids look like in different phases using the radial distribution of the particles. We first calculated the probability of finding a particle at each point in a sample 100x100x100 volume. The first three particles were manually placed using the graphs computed on Fortran of those particle probabilities. Using the MAXLOC function the locations of the 41 big and 1180 small surrounding particles were identified as coordinates in the sample volume then graphed in Mathematica. The resulting three-dimensional image, with both big and small species, shows separation between species and particles. Although further work is needed to explore various particle-filling orders in different phases, we have shown that these images do allow a three-dimensional visualization of how the particles align for short- and long-range structure. Increasing our knowledge of colloidal fluids and their structures could help in applications in which separation of materials is either desirable or undesirable in condensed-matter physics and material science.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Comparison of Observed Cosmic Ray Induced Ionization to a Numerical Model
When a cosmic ray particle, for example a proton, collides with the atmosphere of the Earth, a cascade of secondary particles distribute throughout the atmosphere, contributing to the electrical conductivity of atmospheric air by way of induced ionization. This cosmic ray induced ionization is used in the prediction of the formation of clouds, providing applications in meteorology. Researchers at the University of Oulu in Finland have developed a numerical model that can predict the level of cosmic ray induced ionization at different atmospheric depths depending of the geomagnetic latitude and strength of the solar magnetic. The goal of our research was to determine the accuracy of the numerical model used by the University of Oulu by way of comparison with experimental data gathered over the past few years through balloon flights of our own. The balloon flights consisted of an apparatus affixed with Geiger counters flown into the atmosphere with hydrogen-filled weather balloons. Data were then harvested from the apparatus and used to determine the level of ionization at different altitudes. These experimental data were then compared to the numerical model developed by the University of Oulu. Through this comparison of the experimental data from the balloon flights to the numerical model, we see that the data fit the model qualitatively, with quantitative variation at higher altitudes, as predicted by the published observations.


Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

The Role of Wood as Macroinvertebrate Habitat in the Pomme de Terre
Jackob A. Lutchen, Bradley J. Ramin, and Tracey M. Anderson
Division of Science and Math, University of Minnesota, Morris

With the spread of agriculture, riparian trees are disappearing from streams, so it is important to investigate how woody debris compares to the benthic (bottom) substrate. In order to investigate the role of wood as habitat in an agricultural stream we collected paired macroinvertebrate samples from wood and benthic habitats in the Pomme de Terre River (PTR) upstream and downstream from an impoundment (N=5 in each reach). We collected 37 taxa from wood and benthic environments, 26 of which were insects. Twelve taxa occurred only on wood while only 1 was unique to the benthic habitat.[TMA1] Taxon richness did not differ significantly between benthic and wood habitats. However, when upstream and downstream reaches were analyzed separately we noted that significantly more taxa occurred on upstream wood samples (paired t-test, p

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

The Meaning of a Veil
Our clothes reflect a deeper meaning than just our appearance, they represent out social norms and values. In Muslim societies, veiling has been practiced for various reasons. It contains a broad spectrum of interpretations for Muslim women living in both Muslim societies and abroad. However, the symbolic significance of veiling is often misunderstood in Western culture. Established norms within society have identified, for the most part, veiling as oppressive. But this misconception couldn’t be further from the truth. Veiling has been a custom prominent throughout much of history, used as a form of self-expression to symbolize ones core values and beliefs. As Leila Ahmed (1996) explains, veiling was a practice adopted from the Persian and Byzantine societies to distinguish between the upper and lower class women. Many religions including Christianity and Judaism have adopted some form of veiling throughout history, but not as frequently as Islam. The purpose of this research is to investigate the meanings that are attached to veiling for Muslim women. The research method used here is based on conducting an extensive literature review. Its findings will be analyzed by using content analysis to measure the vitality of the meanings that are attached to veiling for Muslim women living in both Muslim and Western societies at present time.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Major League pitcher performance after being placed on the disabled list
In Major League Baseball, pitchers, when injured, are placed on the disabled list (DL). We proposed that a decrease in performance occurs after being placed on the DL. We compared statistics of pitchers that were on the DL (study group) to pitchers that were not on the DL (control group) over a six year time period by analyzing three separate years (2007, 2010, and 2012 seasons). To determine the study and control group, the website prosportstransactions.com was used. For each variable, we set a minimum and maximum range and only pitchers whose statistics were within that range qualified. Fangraphs.com was used to determine pitching statistics: fastball velocity, strike to walk ratio (K/BB), walks plus hits per inning pitched (WHIP), earned run average (ERA (average amount of runs allowed by the pitcher)) and innings pitched per season (IP). Two hundred fifty pitchers were analyzed (125 in each group). In 2010, the control group (30) was significantly older (P=0.01) than the DL group (28.6). The ERA between both groups was significantly different, favoring the control group, during all three seasons. There were no significant differences when comparing fastball velocity, WHIP, and IP for any of the three seasons. We found that pitchers placed on the DL tended to have higher ERAs compared to pitchers that were not placed on the DL for the same season. The results of this study indicate that when pitchers are placed on the DL, their overall pitching performance decreases.


Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Using Correlation of Order Statistics to Discern Directional Dependence
Pearson’s correlation is used throughout the scientific community to measure how strongly two variables are related to each other. However, Pearson’s correlation can miss relationships between variables if the relationship is too complex, and when it does it doesn’t give information about how two variables are related. To examine these types of problems, we investigated a new kind of correlation based on ordering variables. We created it by ordering pairs of variables from smallest to largest based on the first variable, then from smallest to largest based on the second variable, and finding Pearson’s correlation between a variable when it is ordered from smallest to largest and the same variable when it is ordered based on the second variable. We examined if and when these new correlations differed from Pearson’s correlation to determine if the new correlations could reveal underlying trends in the data that Pearson’s correlation didn’t and if the new correlation could correctly predict the direction of the relationship between two variables. We tested our method using real world data collected from a variety of laboratory and field experiments where there was a known causal relationship and data that we generated using statistical computing software. We found that our new correlation showed some aptitude for discerning relationships that Pearson’s correlation missed in certain types of data. Our method had a low success rate with correctly predicting the direction of a relationship in the data we generated; however, our method outperformed existing methods when applied to real world data.


Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

An Analysis of Streaks in Probability Using Bernoulli Trials and Conditioning
Understanding probability is one of the most crucial aspects of understanding how the world functions. It is arguably one of the most scientifically viable tools we have to date to explain causal mechanisms and interaction. With applications ranging from the most serious such as military strategy, game theory and politics, to business and pleasure such as the world of finance, economics and gambling, probability is indeed everywhere. The focus of this research will be to continue prior analysis on an interesting sub-field of probability, by providing some basic insight as to what occurs when there are ‘streaks’. Our goal is to explain using statistics and modeling what happens when streaks in Bernoulli trials (simple success or failure trials) occur, how rare they are and how to quantify them. Applications and data involved in our study will be taken from elementary Bernoulli events like coin flips, and then from slightly more complex settings like major league sports, (with a heavy focus on basketball). The goal of our research will be to create a framework in which we can analyze the likelihood of streaks in these applications and explain our findings on the conditioning aspect of probability and stochasticity in Bernoulli trials, so when streaks occur in real life settings we can better understand and predict what happens next.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Feeding Laterality in Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum)
Laterality is the preferential use of one side of the body to accomplish a task. One form of lateralization observed across taxa is the differential use of the left and right visual field. Among species that possess a left and right monocular visual field, previous research has shown a preference for using each eye to attend to different tasks. Most frequently it appears that visually lateralized animals will use their right eye to search for food while using their left eye to be vigilant for predators. Feeding and predator laterality have been observed in birds, reptiles, mammals, and some amphibian species. Evidence of feeding laterality in an amphibian species would add support to the body of evidence that suggests an early origin of lateralization in a common ancestor of vertebrates. This research aims to assert the presence or absence of lateralized feeding behaviors in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). To test for feeding lateralization a lab population of tiger salamanders were exposed to a visual stimulus in the form of a high value food item, a cricket, in both the right and left visual field. The intensity of their response to the visual stimulus was recorded and then the data for right and left side responses were compared. The data suggest a trend toward stronger feeding responses when the cricket was in the right visual field, however further analysis is needed to establish whether a significant side bias exists. These results are consistent with an early evolutionary origin of visual lateralization.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Melanocyte Development and Migration
Zebrafish contain pigment cells, called melanocytes, that are similar to those in human pigment cells. Understanding how these cells behave in developing embryonic zebrafish can shed light on their development and behavior, and allow us to understand how melanocytes behave in humans. Our work visualized melanocyte development through the use of time lapse video and photographs taken with a microscope. Melanocytes are darkly pigmented, which let us observe their movement without the use of dyes. Our research has potential to expand on the current knowledge on melanocyte development. Pigmentation in the embryonic stages is not well documented as compared to later developmental stages. We have been studying the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in embryonic zebrafish because the animals are transparent and the pigment cells are easily seen.. EMT is the process in which cells separate from layered sheets, or epithelia, of tissue to disperse throughout the body as mesenchyme, a kind of loose aggregate of cells in a gelatinous matrix. As well as documenting EMT, our study also documented rapid rates of movement in early embryonic stages that eventually slow as cells stop and coalesce into patches to form stripes. One thing we have determined is that cell movements begin before pigment production, so we are currently pursuing methods to label younger cells with fluorescent dyes. By studying these rates of melanocyte movement as they undergo EMT has led to a better understanding of how normal development occurs, as well as behaviors in wound healing of living tissue, and cancer cell progression,when cancer cells metastasize and leave an original tumor to spread.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Environmental Factors Drive Variability in Earthworm Populations Sampled Through Time at Six Sites in Western Minnesota
Prior to European settlement in the mid-1800s, Minnesota’s prairie and forest biomes were free of invasive Eurasian earthworms. Since then, the earthworms have spread into many parts of the state, but the extent of this invasion is still poorly documented. Here we report the characteristics and relative abundances of earthworm species from six sites spread across a 400 km transect following the prairie-forest ecotone in western Minnesota. At these six sites, we sampled earthworms and vegetation at 12 plots, representing a variety of microenvironments, using the hot-mustard extraction technique. Earthworms were subsequently identified and measured to calculate total biomass. While most studies only sample once to obtain a snapshot in time, we have documented the same 144 plots three times from 2012-16. Populations varied with time, however earthworms found in one sample roughly predicted the next sample, two years later (R2=0.2-0.45). High earthworm populations were correlated with high soil moisture, increased pH, decreased soil litter and organic layers, and low ground-level light. Overall, the two sites furthest into the historical prairie had earthworm populations that declined with time, while the three sites within the forested side of the prairie-forest ecotone had increased populations from 2012-2016. The sixth site remains relatively uninvaded. Overall, we have found evidence that the spread of earthworms in Minnesota may be limited by a drying and warming climate


Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Investigation of Varying Metal Organic Frameworks for the Use of a Slow Release Mechanism for Insulin
The protein insulin is key to a properly functioning body, it is produced by the pancreas and allows us to use/store glucose from the carbohydrates we consume. The slow release mechanism is important so it can resemble that of the body. In this research the use of metal organic frameworks was explored as slow release mechanism for insulin. Metal organic frameworks also known as MOFs, are porous materials made from metal ions connected by varying organic ligands, which are electron rich molecules that attach the ions together. These MOFs have tunable pore sizes that allow for adsorption/taken in and desorption/release of small proteins such as insulin. In this case varying MOFs such as H-KUST-1, H-KUST-1/GO (18%) and MOF-5 have been investigated for their ability to adsorb and desorb insulin. The adsorption was done at room temperature and desorption done in phosphate buffered saline in a 37 ℃ (98.6 ℉) waterbath to mock physiological conditions of the human body. Adsorption and desorption were investigated using the techniques of UV-vis, gel electrophoresis, and a fluorometer to find the amount of insulin left in the solution after incubation. Preliminary data shows that a slow release mechanism is promising, seen when the amount of insulin being desorbed/ released from the MOF decreased over time.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Synthesis of a Novel Chiral Ferrocene Ligand
The synthesis of chiral ligands for transition metal catalysts is vital to developing catalytic reactions with high enantioselectivity. This work discusses progress toward the synthesis of a novel chiral ferrocene ligand. The final product is formed from a β-ketoacyl ferrocene whose synthesis has been reported,1 and previous experiments have shown that the α-alkyl group can easily be added. However, the addition of the diphenylphosphine requires deprotonation of the cyclopentadienyl ring.2 When the β-ketoacyl or acetyl group is present, the addition of a base leads to a facile aldol condensation. To circumvent this, instead of phosphorylating the β-ketoacylferrocene, acetylferrocene was successfully protected as a thioacetal using propan-1,3-dithiol3 in order to carry out the phosphorylation reaction, and the β-ketoacyl group will be added in a later step. Our efforts to carry out the phosphorylation, deprotection, and further elaboration of the ferrocenyl framework will be described.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

UMCM-1 Protein Adsorption and the Effects of Structural Changes of UMCM-1-NH2 on Protein Adsorption Properties
MOFs are crystalline compounds containing metal complexes linked by organic compounds. The result of this type of linking is a cage like structure capable of adsorbing other molecules. Although most adsorption studies typically involve gases, MOFs can adsorb other molecules such as peptides, specifically the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The misfolding of this peptide causes it to aggregate and form plaques which have been linked to the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. The MOFs UMCM-1 and UMCM-1-NH2 were both tested because they are good candidates for the adsorption of Aβ due to their larger pore size, or larger cage openings, which we found complementary to peptide adsorption. We also made structural changes in the form of additions to the amine group on UMCM-1- NH2. The adsorption capabilities of UMCM-1, UMCM-1-NH2, and the modified UMCM-1-NH2 were examined using both fluorometry and SDS-PAGE. Along with Aβ, insulin and bovine serum were used to check for specific adsorption. The results reveal that all forms of UMCM-1 adsorbed all of the Aβ and insulin present. All of the MOFs also adsorbed all of the bovine serum present with the exception of UMCM-1-Pyridine Imine (UMCM-1-PI) which did not adsorb any of this protein. These data suggest that UMCM-1 and its derivatives are good candidates for the adsorption of Aβ. The results of the trials involving bovine serum suggest that post-synthetic modifications can be used to improve the adsorption specificity of MOFs.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

10:00am

Examining Relative Hydrogen Bond Strength Within N-Methyl Formamide
The basis of the hydrogen bond is taught in every general chemistry class at the University of Minnesota Morris. However gaining a three dimensional view of the bonding is hard to achieve from just a textbook. Through varying the concentration of the salt KCl (potassium chloride) the visual experience of how hydrogen bonds work was examined. Using nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) the effect of increasing the KCL was visualized. As the concentration is increased the effect of the KCl is increased in a seemingly linear fashion. Over the course of a ten sample spread varying concentrations from 0.001 M to 1M it was concluded that the hydrogen bond strength is reduced as the concentration of the potassium chloride (KCl) is increased. There is evidence to show that with a salt being added to a protic solution the proton will be shifted at a greater rate with an ever increasing concentration, and the bond strength is impacted. However the trend of the proton shift reached an asymptotic point after the 0.325 M concentration. The expected trend was observed otherwise illustrating that as the concentration of the KCl was increased the proton of the N-Methyl formamide was shifted, showing that the bond strength was increasing as the salt concentration increased.


Saturday April 22, 2017 10:00am - 12:00pm
Student Center, Oyate Hall 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

1:30pm

A Feminist and Musical Analysis of Georges Bizet’s Carmen
The opera Carmen is known perhaps not only for its music but also for its thrilling main character Carmen. The character Carmen is intense, colorful, powerful, and undoubtedly the most interesting character within the opera. Within opera women are typically viewed as victims who lack autonomy, such as in Dido and Aeneas, in which Dido commits suicide because of grief. This stance is traditionally taken when analyzing the opera Carmen by Georges Bizet; for example, professors of English and Gender and Sexuality studies Corinne E. Blackmer and Patricia Juliana Smith in En Travesti: Women, Gender Subversion, Opera claim, “she [Carmen], too, is a victim” (Blackmer and Smith 69-70). I argue that Carmen does not conform to the typical female operatic role and is not a victim. First, I analyze Carmen’s character and the opera’s libretto (text/lyrics) through a feminist lens in order to show that Carmen is an independent woman who is in complete control of the events of the opera. Then I provide support from musical features, such as chromaticism (the use of notes or chords outside the current musical key), to support my argument. My musical discussion of Carmen’s character will be focused upon the “Habanera,” one of the main arias within the opera. It is my hope that my research will help in reevaluating whether or not other female characters within opera are truly helpless victims.


Saturday April 22, 2017 1:30pm - 2:00pm
John Q Imholte Hall, Room #109

2:10pm

Mental Health Status Update: Developing a Social Media Presence for Student Counseling on a University Campus
In order to improve mental health for the University of Minnesota, Morris and the surrounding areas, an online media campaign has been launched to develop awareness, destigmatize, and promote proactive mental health practices. A Facebook page has been created to serve as a tool that discusses various issues within the mental health community and provides information about how to contact available counseling resources. Historically, a mental health Facebook presence at UMM has not existed. A new media source that students are more comfortable with could better impact the student body and surrounding area. Facebook is a popular platform that allows for the creation of webpage like content within the realm of social media. Additionally, this page serves as an independent resource for Student Counseling Services to reach out to the student body in a manner consistent with the current technology. Furthermore, the group created a series of videos with topics surrounding stress reduction, anxiety relief, and proactivity in mental health. The curated videos, as part of an on-going process towards mental health promotion, include various elements of mental health including, but not limited to: stress, coping strategies for stress and anxiety, and proactivity in mental health.
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Saturday April 22, 2017 2:10pm - 2:30pm
John Q Imholte Hall, Room #101 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:10pm

UNTITLED: The Many Deaths of Francesca Woodman
The work of Francesca Woodman has haunted many since her death from suicide at age 22, prompting discussions of not only the space available for the female consciousness in art but of the female body. Over the course of her short life, American photographer Francesca Woodman captured the nuance and mystery of the female psyche by composing over 10,000 photographs, often nudes of herself, reflecting the ways the body and mind unite in some ways and are in conflict in others. She places her nude form against signifiers of the domestic, such as wallpaper flowers or the tile of a kitchen floor, to illustrate the way that the female body is swallowed up by its environment. This analysis focuses heavily on studies of art and art history as it relates to surrealism and self-portraiture, which are both featured heavily in Woodman’s work, as they reflect the psychological toll being forced into a private sphere. By looking at prominent pieces created when Woodman was at the height of her creative and destructive energy in the mid to late 1970s, it is evidenced that the mind is depicted as a physical space in her photos (bare rooms, dirty hallways, and empty fish tanks), giving indications of inner conflict (such as her fascination with imagery that reflects suicide, eerily predicting her own), and illustrating her mentality as a woman. By understanding Woodman’s work as it applies to the female mind and not simply the female form it will be possible to discover a new and previously under-observed area of her work, and will open up a new way in which the female body can be seen outside of its pure sexuality and can reflect the struggles of the female psyche.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 2:10pm - 2:30pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #114 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:30pm

An Analysis of Race Through Hollywood and YouTube
Since the early 1900s, Hollywood has been the heart of America’s mainstream media. During the 2016 Oscars, the racial ratio in nominees was nonexistent. The issue lies with the representation of stereotypes associated with racial minority groups within the United States, and the lack of positive role models detached from these stereotypes. Since its birth in 2006, YouTube has accumulated over one billion content creators. With so many creators, we would expect a larger representation of racial diversity compared to Hollywood. Via a survey of 100 UMM students ages 18-24, I recorded and analyzed the types of content the students watched, their perceptions of racial diversity on YouTube, and the relationship between subscriber count and pay. Some of the most popular YouTubers are of a racial minority in the United States and are paid over $1 million per year with a few million subscribers. With this, I examined the popularities of Hollywood actors and YouTubers through their amount of pay as a common relationship. As the percentage of racially diverse citizens in the United States increases, it is important to have widespread representation within the media to expand the culture of a global community.


Saturday April 22, 2017 2:30pm - 2:50pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #109 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:30pm

TRANSforming Families: The Effect of Familial Social Support and Belongingness on the Healthy Identity Development of Trans Youth
Normative gender roles demand that there are only two genders: the man and the woman. Trans people are individuals who transgress these prescribed norms, as their performance of gender differs from the one assigned to them at birth. When a trans person transitions, or begins the journey of socially and/or biologically changing from one gender identity to another, they face significant discrimination, harassment, and victimization. These negative experiences are especially apparent at home, as 57% of trans people are rejected by their families on the basis of their gender identity, which is a contributing factor to the 26%-45% of trans people who attempt suicide in their lifetime. Throughout the child's transition, parents will also experience a period of transition which requires the reframing of familial roles. This dual transition is examined through the recognition of psychological processes [e.g., grief and depression] that affect both the trans child and the family's perception of themselves and others. Successful navigations of negative reactions towards the transitioning process are processed, which aim to promote equitable and safe spaces for children to grow and thrive in their identities. Finally, further strategies for advocacy and allyship, or the act of supporting trans children, are explored that will ensure the safety and well-being of the child through the promotion of education and cooperation with mental health practitioners, parents, and school teachers. This research is composed of peer-reviewed journal articles from the databases PsycInfo, Psycarticles, and GenderWatch, spanning over the years 1990-2016.


Saturday April 22, 2017 2:30pm - 2:50pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #114 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:30pm

Understanding the Issue: Disconnect and Class Discourse in the Writing Classroom
When academics from working class backgrounds have written about their experiences navigating the academy, they often mention moments of disconnect or growing separation from their families back home. In fact, this separation narrative is so prevalent that researchers have even suggested that there is a strong correlation between the two and that the higher the aspirations of the working class student, the more complete the separation becomes. While it may be easier to simply support individual students who go through this separation, this situation indicates a larger issue in our inability to talk across class discourse. By examining the microcosm of the writing classroom, we can understand where such differences in class discourse occur and how the educational system, as a whole, operates to promote success for middle class students and not their working class peers. I will not only discuss the existing differences in class discourse and how they work in the classroom, but I will also argue that there are limitations to current pragmatic solutions and speculate how to create a space for meaningful conversations across class lines that validate all discourses. This discussion is not only important for deciphering how we can best promote success for working class students, but it also offers significant implications beyond the classroom. Our current political discourse suggests there is significant divisiveness along class lines. Therefore, taking time to understand those differences and promote meaningful conversations are necessary for finding middle ground.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 2:30pm - 2:50pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #113 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:30pm

Zaha Hadid and the Baroque
Zaha Hadid, the late British architect, is still a contributing architect of our time. Her iconic aesthetic is characterized by dramatized, sensuous, and an energized atmosphere that creates an experience for the viewer described as “Baroque” by contemporary news accounts and reviews. The Baroque stylistic period is characterized by its exaggerated motion and ornate details, which produces drama, energy, and opulence.
Using comparative visual analysis, I will analyze and compare the architecture works of the 17th century Baroque to Hadid’s work. Does Hadid’s work warrant the descriptor of Baroque? What are the similarities and differences between her work and 17th-century Baroque style that support or undermine this designation? Then, through reception theory, I will analyze and compare visitors’ documented experiences with Hadid’s work and 17th-century Baroque architecture. Have people had similar experiences in these different environments? This comparison includes my own experiences when visiting Rome, where I was able to see the MAXXI Museum (designed by Hadid), and a select number of 17th-century Baroque churches, such as Sta. Maria della Vittoria, Gesù Nuovo, and Sant'ignazio.
This project is important because it investigates whether the stylistic labels given by scholars and the public are sufficient. My audience will gain a better understanding of what defines a stylistic period and what impact a style can have on viewers.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 2:30pm - 2:50pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #112 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:50pm

Asexual-Identified People's Interactions with Health Care Practitioners
People who identify as asexual use this label because, rather than a sexual orientation like “heterosexual,” “homosexual”, or “bisexual,” which labels attraction by gender, they experience a lack of sexual attraction. Previous psychological research on the topic of asexuality is limited, but one conclusion agreed upon by several studies is that people who identify as asexual differ from those diagnosed with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in several ways. he most notable of these differences is that asexual people were shown typically to have little or no distress related to their lack of sexual desire, whereas distress is a key part of the diagnosis of HSDD. The question guiding this research is: do physical and mental health care professionals perceive their asexual clients as having a mental or physical disorder related to their asexual identity? To answer this question we will survey individuals who self-identify as asexual about their experiences with healthcare practitioners. We expect to find that in at least some cases, asexual people who did reveal their sexual identities to health professionals would encounter negative reactions from the practitioners, due to pathologizing attitudes still present in the medical establishment toward asexuality.


Saturday April 22, 2017 2:50pm - 3:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #114 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:50pm

Differences in School Dropout Rate by Caste-ethnicity among 5-20 Year-olds in Nepal
With a per capita income of less than 700 USD per year, Nepal is one of the poorest countries on earth. Wide gaps in income, healthcare access, educational attainment, and other socioeconomic factors exist between caste-ethnic groups in Nepal. Generally, the upper caste has the highest status, followed by indigenous peoples and then Dalits (who are also known as “untouchables”). Using data from the second and third rounds of the Nepal Living Standards Survey, we calculate disparities in school dropout rate between caste-ethnic groups in Nepal and use statistical tools to isolate the sources of these disparities. We find that the dropout rate among indigenous peoples is about 8 percentage points higher than that of the upper caste, and that the most important variables explaining this difference are socioeconomic factors (such as income and parental occupation), followed by demographic characteristics (such as sex, age, and marital status). The Dalit dropout rate is 12 percentage points higher than the upper caste rate, and the most important variables explaining this gap are socioeconomic factors, followed by geographic characteristics (such as ecological zone). These findings suggest that government policies designed to reduce caste-ethnic disparity in education in Nepal will have the greatest potential effect if they target people who, for instance, live in mountainous areas, are female and have married at a young age, or reside in Nepal’s Far-Western development region. The potential benefits of reducing school dropout among such people include higher incomes, increased access to healthcare, and greater peace and stability.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 2:50pm - 3:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #109 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:50pm

The Reader's Experience: Recontextualizing Dickens's David Copperfield
Scholars have been dedicated to recreating the Victorian reading experience for decades. Robyn Warhol’s experimental website, Reading Like a Victorian, which she presented here for UMM’s 2016 Barber Lecture, is one of the most recent attempts at doing so in the classroom. Warhol’s project engages effectively with the Victorian reader experience through recreating the serialization integral to that experience. However, there are still gaps between the Victorian reading experience and that of contemporary readers who engage with Victorian novels like Dickens’ David Copperfield. Because contemporary readers lack much of the context of the Victorian period, they are often disconnected from the cultural nuances of the novel’s themes--a circumstance which alters and ultimately diminishes the emotional impact of the narrative. In this presentation, we will identify specific contextual gaps between the original David Copperfield and its more contemporary film adaptations--specifically, those from 1960 and 1995. We will then provide pragmatic strategies for recontextualizing the story in order to maintain its cultural and emotional nuances, offering a example of what that could look like through our own partial David Copperfield screenplay.


Saturday April 22, 2017 2:50pm - 3:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #112 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:50pm

Writing Apprehension in a College Academic Setting
In 1975, Daly and Miller’s landmark study of student writing introduced the concept of writing apprehension to the developing field of composition studies. While the concept remains useful, the study that produced it was a preliminary attempt to categorize a vast number of experiences and problems within the current written education system. By assuming that most students tentatively approached writing for abstract reasons (such as fear of bad grades), Daly and Miller implicitly framed writing apprehension as a normal part of all students’ writing process. They thus erased the perspectives of students affected by race, class, and gender differences. Furthermore, this 40+ year-old study is due for an update. My research re-examines Daly and Miller’s study through the lens of the feminist theory of intersectionality in order to understand why writing is important during the college transition, when identity is so malleable. Based on this analysis, I propose several strategies that writing professors and students can use to reduce writing apprehension. This information is crucial for professors who wish to foster open, engaged students within the classroom, as well as cultivate a medium through which marginalized students’ voices may be heard. The fact that so many students shy away from writing because it is viewed as “not their medium” must be changed, so that young writers can make the most of their college writing experience, viewing it less as a thing of dread and more a chance to truly be heard.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 2:50pm - 3:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #113 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

2:50pm

‘Cry Rhetoric’ and Let Slip the Words of Shakespeare: An Analysis of Cuttings from Julius Caesar, The Merchant of Venice, and King Henry the V.
Shakespeare’s stories and themes echo into culture today in shows such as House of Cards and Sons of Anarchy, and in films such as West Side Story, The Lion King, Let the Devil Wear Black, King of Texas, and She’s the Man. This is due not only to his skill at writing, but also the timeless plots and situations he sets within the plays. Literary studies on Shakespeare’s work are available, but there isn’t an abundance of scholarly research on his plays in the disciplines of Rhetoric and Philosophy. This study closes that gap while providing a rhetorical analysis using Bitzer’s Rhetorical Situation as well as Burke’s Dramatism Pentad. The analysis will be of selected cuttings of three popular Shakespeare plays, Julius Caesar, The Merchant of Venice, and King Henry V. In return, this study will yield a better understanding of different Shakespearean persuasion techniques and uses that still find their way in modern language and culture.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 2:50pm - 3:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #101 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:10pm

Family Influence on Chinese International Students' Sense of Coherence

As the number of Chinese international students rapidly increases in U.S. colleges, it becomes important to understand the factors that contribute to their mental health, especially during their first semester of adjustment to the new culture. This study tested the hypothesis that: family condition predicts Chinese International Students’ Sense of Coherence (SOC), the overall capacity of handling tension derived from life stressors, with adaptation performance works as a mediation during their first semester. Data collection sessions were conducted for a collage-based cohort of 43 freshman Chinese international students at the beginning and at the end of their first semester. Participants completed self-report questionnaires that included the SOC (23-term) scale, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (62-term) measuring parent-child relationship, and Sociocultural adaptation Scale (41-term) measuring adjustment performance. Result showed that participants with a healthy parent-child relationship reported a higher SOC than those with a weak family relationship. Those reported a better performance of adaptation to foreign environment also reported a higher SOC than others. Family relationship is a potential predictor of Chinese international students’ SOC through their first semester while the process of acculturation is predictive of their SOC and mediated the impacts of parent-child relationship on students’ SOC. This study contributes to the literature on Antonovsky’s theory of sense of coherence in Chinese international students.

 


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Saturday April 22, 2017 3:10pm - 3:30pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #114 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:10pm

Investigating the influence of CD80/B7-H1 signaling on anti-tumor immune responses mediated by CD8+ T cells
CD8+ T cells are capable of killing tumor cells, but tumor cells have many ways to evade CD8+ T cells. One mechanism is the expression of B7-H1 (PD-L1) on the surface of tumor cells. Signaling events downstream of B7-H1 interacting with PD-1 on CD8+ T cells result in inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. B7-H1 also interacts with CD80, which is expressed on the surface of CD8+ T cells. The impact of B7-H1 interacting with CD80 is the focus of our studies. In order to study this we use two mouse lines, one wild type line that expressed CD80 and one knockout line that does not express CD80. Utilizing CD8+ T cells harvested from these mice, we have found that activated CD80 knock-out CD8+ T cells survive better than activated wild-type CD8+ T cells when cultured with plate-bound B7-H1 protein and anti-CD3. We are currently investigating the signaling events that occur downstream of B7-H1 interacting with CD80 on effector CD8+ T cells that could contribute to the induction of apoptosis of CD8+ T cells.


Saturday April 22, 2017 3:10pm - 3:30pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #101 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:10pm

Morris and The Dakota Access Pipeline: A Social Media Campaign
As part of a Communication, Media, and Rhetoric (CMR) media activist project we are partnering with #NoDAPL by creating a media portfolio. This media project emcompasses the history of the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) and personal stories generated from the protests. During this project we have created a series of six videos, a collaborative public event, and a social media page. The goal is to work towards creating a statement piece that share accurate information on DAPL and its connection to the University of Minnesota Morris (UMM) in hope of promoting positive action within and beyond the Morris community. Through the process of research on the history and current news of DAPL, shooting video, interviewing, post production, creation of a social media campaign, and visiting the aftermath campsites of DAPL post eviction, we created several multimedia persuasive messages. The videos contain personal stories and interviews on the DAPL subject as well as ideas to encourage activism. In our presentation, we will introduce these videos and discuss our creation process as well as our learned experience. This project will address the connection of the history of UMM with tribal policies involving the U.S. government, the Indian Removal Act of 1830, DAPL, and the personal stories of DAPL protesters. Our hope is to create a political artistic piece that motivates others towards positive action concerning DAPL.


Saturday April 22, 2017 3:10pm - 3:30pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #112 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:10pm

Paper or Plastic? A Comparison of the Carbon Emissions of Grocery Bags
Paper and plastic grocery bags, as well as reusable bags (non-woven polypropylene), all can be used to carry out purchases from the store. While these different bag types serve essentially the same function, how do their environmental impacts differ? One way to measure environmental impact is by examining a bag’s entire life cycle. A product’s life cycle encompasses various stages starting with the extraction of raw materials, going through production and then use, and ending with a waste management option (e.g. landfill or recycling). Life cycle assessment is a tool to evaluate one or more impact areas of a product over its entire life cycle. In this comparison, carbon emissions are the measure of environmental impact. Several scholarly articles about life cycle assessments of plastic, paper, and reusable bags were reviewed and their findings compared. The results of this research indicate that if all bag types were used only once, then a plastic bag would have the lowest carbon emissions. However, if paper bags were reused four times and reusable bags were used at least eleven times, then they could achieve lower carbon emissions than a plastic bag. Measuring environmental impact is complicated, and looking at carbon emissions to calculate environmental impact only highlights one problem area related to effects on the environment. Looking at other impact areas, such as water pollution, might yield different results regarding which bag type has less environmental impact.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 3:10pm - 3:30pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #113 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:30pm

A Hand-Me-Down Dress from Who Knows Where: Reconsidering our Relationship with Waste.

Aluminized plastics are one type of waste that cannot be efficiently recycled. They are also often  used in the packaging of snack foods. Moreover, even easily recycled products such as aluminum cans and PET plastic bottles are often wasted, with only 55.1% and 31.2% of them recycled, respectively. Food waste is even less likely to be properly disposed of, with only 5.1% of food waste composted in the U.S. in 2014.  I aim to bring awareness to these problems of unsustainable waste by creating an evening dress from aluminized plastic wrappers found in UMM garbage cans. While retrieving my materials, I also sort out and document other compostables and recyclables mistakenly thrown away to estimate the amount of materials that could easily be diverted  from the landfill. Thus, this project is also intended to bring awareness to opportunities to increase the amount of materials recycled on campus by presenting a report of material diverted, alongside the displayed dress. This project takes the concept of fashion trashion, a class with the goal of making an outfit entirely from trash, and expands upon it. Rather than simply making a dress from any waste, I am using one of the few materials that cannot be recycled at UMM. Also, beyond just a piece of fashion, this project creates a measurable positive impact on the environment, through its diversion of waste from the landfill.

 



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Saturday April 22, 2017 3:30pm - 3:50pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #114 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:30pm

Alternative Systems of Grading: Appreciating What is Right in Front of Us
Both students and professors in college writing courses often criticize the traditional A-F grading system, claiming it not only values the end result over the learning process but also that it places too much pressure on both students and professors alike. This research project examines the merits of two alternative systems of grading said to mitigate these consequences: contract grading and pass/fail grading. My review of the literature shows that when put into practice both of these systems fall short. Contract grading prioritizes quantity over quality, basing a grade not on the argument or structure of a paper, but the amount of pages it has or the number of visits made to the writing center. Likewise pass/fail grading decreases student motivation not only in the pass/fail classroom, but in all of the classes the student is taking at that time.
Based on my review of the current literature, I argue that the standard A-F system of grading works better than contract and pass/fail grading because it is motivating, flexible, and efficient with qualitative assessment. These positive features are important because people often complain about the A-F system but rarely highlight its benefits or evaluate the alternative. The A-F system may not be the best option, but in order to create a better system of grading we need to ensure it maintains the qualities that A-F grading does well.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 3:30pm - 3:50pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #112 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:30pm

Blending Fact and Fiction with Continuing Conversations: The Necessity of Afterwards in Biographical Fiction for Children and Young Adults
In biographical fiction authors name protagonists after historical figures and take artistic liberties to reveal deeper political, societal, and emotional truths that may conflict with historical fact. Prior conversations on biofiction date back to 1937, but primarily focus on novels for adults. Writers Georg Lukács and Ralph Ellison find biofiction to be an “irredeemable aesthetic form” which distorts truth and believe that historical figures should be left to historians.
Biofiction for children and young adults is more ethically questionable. Young readers may be more likely to accept historical inconsistencies as fact instead of researching and considering the author's reason for them. For example, in Jane Yolen and Robert Harris’s novel Queen’s Own Fool, Mary’s jester, Jardinière, is suspected of murder and flees Edenborough. In the novel, she is taken in by John Knox even though historical records prove he was not in the city during these events. If changes are not explained, young readers could easily take them as fact, leaving them with a skewed perspective on history. However, when authors continue the conversation with readers after the novel is over, they are able to clear up many issues that arise. By analyzing afterwards and author’s notes of several biographical novels I will indicate some virtues and potential dangers of this genre for young readers. Furthermore, I will explain how continuing conversations ease concerns by keeping authors accountable for their changes, giving them more credibility, and giving the readers resources for further learning, allowing them to have a deeper understanding of the truths the author was trying to reveal.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 3:30pm - 3:50pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #113 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:30pm

Netflix: Description and Analysis of Ideology
We are all familiar with Netflix, but by conducting a chronological and critical case study on the service utilizing media theory, historical analysis, and contemporary critical analysis of the company’s practices, this project identifies and increases understanding of the corporate ideologies (providing low-cost content of interest to a wide audience) embraced by the company and the entertainment media industry. The media theories reviewed were originally created to describe the context of cable and broadcast television, but are selectively applied to newer media distribution methods such as online internet streaming due to the differences between media forms. The findings of this project point to a trend of media organizations operating on a system of capitalism, navigating and taking advantage of popular culture and consumer desires in a cultural economy. Netflix distinguishes itself by offering the illusion of choice and consumer engagement/agency not seen in other media. In reality, Netflix provides a limited selection of blockbusters and "must-see-TV", thus being beholden to a financial economy. Netflix acts as a culture industry, producing and distributing not only a product (shows, movies, etc.), but lasting cultural impact and significance.


Saturday April 22, 2017 3:30pm - 3:50pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #109 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:30pm

The C Squad: Lessons in Media Creation
Due to the rise of smart phones and self-publishing sites like Youtube and Vimeo, web distribution has become increasingly viable as a platform to get your content seen. Our directed study group, The C-Squad, has been working together to create a sketch-comedy web series showcasing the humor and talent of our production team. Our core group of seven students has lead this process every step of the way, from writing, to acting and filming, editing, and finally online distribution. By familiarizing ourselves with every step of the content creation process we have become knowledgeable regarding the technology of filming, editing, and audio recording. We have also learned of the amount of time and coordination that goes into creating shot lists, scouting locations, and planning times to shoot together. By discussing our process step by step and showing clips from our program, we hope to illuminate all of the behind the scenes work that goes into creating the content that surrounds us every day.


Saturday April 22, 2017 3:30pm - 4:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #101 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:50pm

From Murders to Miracles: The Tale of Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral, located in present day Kent, England, has a long history of both murders and miracles. My research argues that Canterbury’s infamous history is best understood using a metaphorical comparison to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA has a unique double helix structure that intertwines and requires two strands to support the structure of the entire helix. A similar structure can be found throughout Canterbury’s history. These two strands make up the political and architectural history of Canterbury Cathedral. My presentation will discuss how the political history of the cathedral has driven the physical evolution of the building through four main phases. The first phase began when Pope Gregory erected the first version of Canterbury Cathedral in 596, with the political support of Rome. The second occurred after the Norman invasion in 1067, when William the Conqueror chose Canterbury as his center of religious power. The third was the martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket and after the 1174 fire, the murder of the archbishop had a lasting impact on the cathedral and its popularity as a place of pilgrimage and miracles. The final instance was when King Henry VIII initiated the Reformation which targets Canterbury and the memory of Saint Thomas Becket. Just as DNA could not be structurally supported with a single helix, without the added context of the political history, the architectural history alone fails to provide complete understanding of the complex history of Canterbury. It is through the double helix metaphor, with both politics and architecture incorporated together, that we can fully appreciate the physical appearance of Canterbury Cathedral today.

Speakers
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Saturday April 22, 2017 3:50pm - 4:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #113 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:50pm

Maternal Autonomy and Child Health Care Utilization: Evidence from Bangladesh
Access to health care is an important determinant of both short and long-term health outcomes of children. Reducing child mortality is just one of the eight Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations. Alongside child mortality, promoting gender equality and empowering women ranks third on the list. The primary objective of my research is to examine the effect of maternal autonomy in household decision-making on child health care utilization in Bangladesh. The health economics literature often describes maternal autonomy through a woman’s participation and independence in household decision-making, control over household resources, and resistance against domestic violence, and identifies it as an important determinant of a child’s access to health care. The study uses the 2014 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data and constructs a maternal autonomy index using the survey responses of mothers on questions related to household decision making. In a multivariate logistic regression model, the paper examines the effect of maternal autonomy on four measures of child health care utilization: (1) if a child is fully immunized, and if a child has used health care services on the onsets of (2) diarrhea, (3) acute respiratory infections (ARI) and (4) fever. We believe that this paper makes an important contribution given that Bangladesh is still a patriarchal society where a father commands a greater role in the family’s decision-making, and the Millennium Development Goal of women empowerment and gender equality remains far from being achieved.

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Saturday April 22, 2017 3:50pm - 4:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #109 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:50pm

Sustainable Food in Sustainable Social Media
Sustainability is of great interest to those at the University of Minnesota, Morris, and being in a farming community allows for sustainable food consumption. Though there are opportunities to practice in food sustainability locally, there is a lack of knowledge of these practices on the university campus. Our understanding of the subject and the target audience of university students has led to our belief that a strong social media presence is adequate in providing information about local food sustainability, particularly the Morris Area Farmers Market. A publicity campaign using social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram provide our target audience with eye-catching information through photos and videos of interviews of students and vendors in order to make the videos more persuasive and have more impact on the audience. We have generated and posted content for these various sites throughout the semester. We have also curated rules of thumb for efficient posts to share with the Board Chair so that the sites may continue to provide information and catch attention. The farmers market occurs mostly during the summer, when there are less students on campus, but there is overlap between the growing and school seasons, as the final farmers market takes place on the campus mall. We hope to increase the student presence at the Morris Area Farmers Market as well as the views to the social media sites, and build a better connection between the campus and community through the summer of 2017.


Saturday April 22, 2017 3:50pm - 4:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #114 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267

3:50pm

Writing from the Inside Out: Diversity and Writing Instruction
The first year writing classroom is the stepping stone from which students embark on their journey to acquire an academic discourse, the type of specialized language used by professors and researchers. But what path should we take to enable students to use that language fluently in their own fields? Some composition studies scholars argue that students should write academically from the beginning, but others argue that while students do need academic discourse, they also need more familiar kinds of writing—like the types of writing seen in their communities in newspapers or novels, or the types that are deeply personal, like a journal. At this point, while the latter types of expressive assignments are still given, almost every college level writing instructor focuses on academic assignments. However, as students of increasingly diverse backgrounds are welcomed into higher education, I will argue that a model of writing education focused exclusively on academic discourse, the single destination of our path, doesn’t quite fit; in fact, it hasn’t ever fit the needs of all students. My research into the works of composition studies scholars combines both the history of writing instruction and professional takes on the field today to show that underprivileged groups have used expressive and non-academic writing instruction to gain power in the past, and that we can help to empower every student by increasing the use of these same tools in writing instruction in the future.

Speakers
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Saturday April 22, 2017 3:50pm - 4:10pm
John Q. Imholte Hall, Room #112 600 E 4th St., Morris MN 56267